Vitalik Clears the Air: Ethereum’s L1 and zkEVMs are Fully Compatible

In the Brief:

  • Ethereum's L1 can interact with zkEVMs without issues.
  • zkEVMs are an upcoming scaling solution for Ethereum.
  • Vitalik Buterin clarifies misunderstandings regarding zkEVMs.
  • zkEVMs are essentially a way to run smart contracts on a layer 2 solution.
  • zkEVMs can offer significant improvements in transaction speed and cost.

3 - 5 minute read

Ethereum [ETH] has been working diligently to address the challenges of network congestion and transaction delays. One of its latest scaling solutions is the integration of zero-knowledge proofs with the Ethereum Virtual Machine [zkEVM], launched by Polygon [MATIC]. However, many participants were unclear about how the L1 project would interact with its L2 counterpart. To provide clarification, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin published a detailed blog post on the subject.

Vitalik explained that the project’s nodes, consisting of the consensus and execution clients, have been reduced to make room for zkEVM participation. The execution client uses the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) mechanism to validate data on the blockchain, while the consensus client is responsible for maintaining the latest database and executing transactions. Traditionally, these clients accounted for two-thirds of the network. However, with the introduction of zk rollups, this is no longer the case. Vitalik highlighted, “As of today, no consensus or execution client makes up more than 2/3 of the network.”

The space freed up allows the zkEVM to become the third Ethereum client. However, the transition won’t be immediate since the L1 needs to work on using zkEVMs for verification to verify execution. Despite the zk capability, Vitalik acknowledged that certain problems exist that no L2 can solve. He mentioned the latency challenge, which could lead to chain disruption after a late published block, and data efficiency concerns that could expose validator signatures. However, he suggested that long-term solutions might be possible.

“As of today, no consensus or execution client makes up more than 2/3 of the network.”


Vitalik pointed out that zk-SNARKs and ERC-4337, which enable the creation and transaction of contracts on the blockchain, could potentially address the data efficiency issue. However, implementing these solutions would take considerable time to become a reality. He also admitted that slow block execution and verification could pose challenges in the initial stages of the transition.

This development has significant implications for Ethereum as it continues to tackle the challenges of network congestion and transaction delays. The integration of zkEVMs with Ethereum’s L1, as clarified by Vitalik Buterin, marks a crucial step forward in addressing these issues. With the zkEVM becoming the third Ethereum client, the network’s capacity for scaling and efficiency improvements is enhanced. Ethereum’s progress in addressing network congestion and transaction delays through zkEVM integration is promising, but investors must remain vigilant and consider the potential risks associated with trading.

Ethereum’s integration of zkEVMs with its L1, as explained by Vitalik Buterin, represents a significant advancement in addressing the challenges of network congestion and transaction delays. This development will likely have a positive impact on Ethereum’s scalability and efficiency. However, traders should always exercise caution when making investment decisions due to the inherent risks associated with trading.

Disclaimer: The content in this article is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered as financial or trading advice. We are not financial advisors, and trading carries high risk. Always consult a professional financial advisor before making any investment decisions.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *